Puebloan Nations***

In about 1520 Spain defeated the Aztec Empire and launched the colonization of the continent along the Pacific Coast.  In the 18th century Mexico fought for and eventually won  independence from Spain. Then the U.S. tried to step into Spain’s position, and thus the struggle for domination of the southwestern portion of the continent continued.

There were still dozens of indigenous tribes fighting to retain their homelands and way of life. The different tribal nations each confronted the influx of emigrant whites in their own way. In the mid 16th century Spanish colonists were the first Europeans to encounter any of these tribes.

The Puebloan Nations of this period – primarily along the Rio Grande from Mexico to Colorado — were some of the oldest tribes in the west.  Further east, tribes on the great plains were primarily nomadic, following buffalo herds. When European colonists began the push westward, the plains tribes were more likely to engage in violent confrontation with emigrants and the U.S. Army.

 

The Pueblos which are relevant to Little Birds are

Jemez (Walatowa) Tesuque Pueblo

The two closest neighboring tribes:

Approximate locations for major tribes in the southwest in the middle of the 19th century.

The Navajo (called Diné or Naabeehó in their own language)  were semi-nomadic into the twentieth century. They had specific seasonal dwellings that corresponded to the planting/harvest cycle and the needs of livestock. They conducted trade over long distances.

The Apache are a group of culturally related tribes, including the Mescalero (Naa’dahéõdé), Jicarilla (Dindéi), Plains Apache (Kalth Tindé).

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