Puebloan Nations***

In the mid 19th century there were still dozens of indigenous tribes fighting to retain their homelands and way of life in the far west. The different tribal nations each confronted the influx of emigrant whites in their own way.

The Puebloan Nations of this period – primarily along the Rio Grande from Mexico to Colorado — were some of the oldest tribes in the west.  Further east, tribes on the great plains were primarily nomadic, following buffalo herds. When European colonists began the push westward, the plains tribes were more likely to engage in violent confrontation with emigrants and the U.S. Army.

In the mid 16th century Spanish colonists were the first Europeans to encounter any of these tribes.  The most significant interaction between the indigenous and colonizers was the introduction of the horse.  Within a short time the plains tribes way of life and hunting had been revolutionized.

The Pueblos which are relevant to Little Birds are

Jemez (Walatowa) Tesuque Pueblo

The two closest neighboring tribes:

Approximate locations for major tribes in the southwest in the middle of the 19th century.

The Navajo (called Diné or Naabeehó in their own language)  were semi-nomadic into the twentieth century. They had specific seasonal dwellings that corresponded to the planting/harvest cycle and the needs of livestock. They conducted trade over long distances.

The Apache are a group of culturally related tribes, including the Mescalero (Naa’dahéõdé), Jicarilla (Dindéi), Plains Apache (Kalth Tindé).

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